Domain Name System


Domain Name System commonly known as DNS is an internet service that translates domain and host names to IP addresses and vice versa. It is a critical component as it works like a directory service for the internet that resolves human-readable hostnames such as into machine-readable IP addresses like (example IP address). It basically tells your browser where the content for the requested URL is located to retrieve it.

How does DNS works?

When you visit a domain for example, there are a few steps that your computer follows in order to translate this readable web address into a machine readable IP address. Now this will happen every time you use a domain name whether you sending an email, looking through a website or listening to music on the internet etc.

Let’s look at this step-by-step

  1. Once you type the domain name your browser will send this query to the operating system
  2. Each operating system is configured to query certain DNS servers. Your ISP or network administrator configures such DNS servers called Resolving Name Server.
  3. The resolving name server is not aware of the location of the domain name, but it does know where the root servers are located.
  4. Then the resolving name server finds the location of the top-level domain name server to send query for the specified domain. Each domain on the internet has authoritative name server.
  5. And finally the authoritative name server will give you the exact IP address of the given domain name. This information will come back to the resolving name server, which caches the information and send backs an answer to the browser.
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